Sayyiduna Abdullah bin 'Abbas says that this is the last Sûrah of the Qur'an which was revealed, i. e. no complete Sûrah was revealed to the Prophet after this. (Reported by Muslim Nasai, Tabarani, Ibn Abi Shaibah, Ibn Marduyah). According to Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar, this Surah was revealed on the occasion of the Farewell Pilgrimage at Mina, and after it, the Prophet rode his she camel and gave his farewell Sermon. Mother of the Believers, Sayyidah Umme Habeebah, says that when this Surah was revealed, the Prophet said that he would leave the world that year. Upon hearing this, the Prophet's daughter Sayyidah Fatimah wept. Thereupon, he said: "From among my family, you will be the first to join me." Hearing this she laughed. (Reported by Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Marduyah).
Major Issues, Divine Laws and Guidance:
• Victory is not an occasion of exultation, but to glorify Allah, it comes with the help of Allah.
• Indication is given that the mission of the Prophet has been fulfilled.
In this Surah, Allah has informed His Rasool (peace be upon him) that when Islam attained complete victory in Arabia and the people started entering Allah's religion (Islam) in great numbers, it would mean that the mission for which he was appointed in this world, had been fulfilled. He was then enjoined to busy himself in praising and glorifying Allah by Whose bounty he had been able to accomplish such a great task, and should implore Him to forgive whatever failings and shortcomings he might have shown in the performance of His service.
Here, one can easily see the great difference that there is between a Prophet and a common worldly leader. If a worldly leader, in his own lifetime, is able to bring about a revolution, which has been the aim and objective of his struggle, this would be an occasion for exultation for him. But here, we witness quite another phenomenon. The Rasool of Allah, in a brief space of 23 years, revolutionized an entire nation regarding its beliefs, thoughts, customs, morals, civilization, ways of living, economy, politics and fighting ability, and raised it from ignorance and barbarism, enabled it to conquer the world and become the leader of nations. Yet, when he had accomplished this unique task, he was not enjoined to celebrate it but to glorify and praise Allah, and to pray for His forgiveness. He busied himseIf humbly in the implementation of that command.
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this surah was revealed towards the latter days of Prophet Muhammad’s life and was understood, by the more adroit of his Companions, as a portent for his impending departure from this world. It says:
When God’s succor comes and victory is complete, and you [Muhammad] see people coming to God’s faith in their multitudes, give glory to your Lord and seek His forgiveness. (1–3)
Muhammad was being urged to devote more time to praising God and pleading for His mercy and forgiveness.
The victory of Islam began with the fall of the idols of Makkah and the spread of the message of Islam from Arabia in all directions. Its central message is that God is One, and none else is worthy of veneration and worship.
Muhammad had done well to discharge his duty to eradicate the myths and superstitions associated with religious belief. It was time for him to return to His Lord to receive his well-earned reward. He had worked extremely hard and suffered a great deal. He worshiped God with greater devotion and sincerity than anyone could; he fought in battles until he was wounded; and he suffered the loneli- ness of his struggle, but his faith and trust had never been shaken.
Some may wonder why Muhammad had not been allowed to live longer to enjoy the triumph of Islam, but that would not have been in the character of a prophet. Muhammad was not seeking any
personal glory or world domination. He was of humble means, and during the latter days of his life, when he was at the peak of authori- ty, he had to borrow food with which to feed his family from a Jewish retailer who asked for collateral. At that time, Muhammad was in command of a formidable ﬁghting force that was sweeping Arabia and was poised to challenge the Roman Empire.
It would not have dented his reputation if he had asked one of his wealthy Companions to provide the collateral on his behalf, but he did not, and he gave the Jew his shield as security for the loan. When Muhammad died, his shield was still mortgaged to that Jewish mer- chant.
Muhammad made no material or personal gain out of fulﬁlling his responsibilities, and once his task was completed, he was looking forward to meeting his Lord and Protector. He departed to join that most lofty company of angels and earlier prophets and messen- gers who are “honorably seated in the presence of a Mighty King” (al-Qamar: 55).
إِذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللَّهِ وَالْفَتْحُ
وَرَأَيْتَ النَّاسَ يَدْخُلُونَ فِي دِينِ اللَّهِ أَفْوَاجًا
فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَاسْتَغْفِرْهُ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ تَوَّابًا