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    Period of Revelation:

           This Surah's period of revelation is not known from any authentic tradition, however, it appears that it was revealed in the same period in which the Surahs Al-Mumin, As-Sajdah and As-Shura were sent down. The revelation of this series of the Surahs began when the disbelievers of Makkah were planning to assassinate the Prophet. They were holding consultations day and night in their assemblies relating to this issue. An attempt of assassination had also been made as is referred in the verses 79 and 80.

    Major Issues, Divine laws and Guidance:

    • Al-Qur'an is a transcript from the Mother-Book which is in Allah's keeping.

    • Supplication before riding a conveyance.

    • Creed of the mushrikeen, that angels are female divinities, is false.

    • An example of the Prophet Ibraheem who recognized the Oneness of Allah and rejected the shirk using merely his common sense and observing Allah's signs from nature.

    • If it were not that all mankind will become one race of unbelievers, Allah would have given the unbelievers houses which were made of sterling silver.

    • He who turns away from the remembrance of Allah, Allah appoints a Shaitan to be his intimate friend.

    • Hold fast to the Qur'an if you want to be rightly guided.

    • The Prophet Isa (Jesus) was no more than a mortal, whom Allah favored and made an example for the children of Israel.

    • O Prophet tell the Christians: "If Allah had a son, I would have been the first one to worship him."

           In this Surah, a forceful criticism has been made of the Quraish and other Arabs' creeds and superstitions. The disbelievers were admitting the fact that the Creator of the earth, the heavens, themselves and their deities is only Allah. They also knew and admitted that the blessings they were benefiting from, had been bestowed by Allah; yet they insisted on making others associates of Allah in His Godhead. They believed that the angels were goddesses; they had carved their images as females; they adorned them with female dresses and ornaments. They called them daughters of Allah, worshipped them and invoked them for the fulfillment of their needs. They had no answer to the question as to how they knew that the angels were female? When they could not find the basis for their claims and superstitions, they presented the pretense of destiny and said: "Had Allah disapproved our practices, we could not have worshipped these deities." Whereas the means of finding out whether Allah had approved of something or not, are His Books and not those things which are happening in the world.

           When they were asked: "Have you any other authority, apart from this argument for the polytheism of yours?" They replied: "The same has been the practice of our forefathers." In other words, this, in their opinion, was a strong enough argument (daleel) for a creed to be right and true, whereas the Prophet Ibraheem, peace be upon him, being the descendant of whom was the only basis of their pride and distinction, had rejected the religion of his elders, left his home, and had discarded every such blind imitation of his forefathers which did not have the support of any rational argument.

           After criticizing each practice of ignorance of the disbelievers and rejecting it with rational arguments, this discourse has pointed out: "Allah has neither any offspring, nor are there separate gods for the earth or heavens, nor is there any intercessor who may be able to protect the disbelievers from Allah's punishment. Allah is far above from having a child. He Alone is the God of the whole universe: all others are His servants."

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    حم

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    إِنَّا جَعَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

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    وَإِنَّهُ فِي أُمِّ الْكِتَابِ لَدَيْنَا لَعَلِيٌّ حَكِيمٌ

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    أَفَنَضْرِبُ عَنكُمُ الذِّكْرَ صَفْحًا أَن كُنتُمْ قَوْمًا مُّسْرِفِينَ

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    وَكَمْ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن نَّبِيٍّ فِي الْأَوَّلِينَ

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    وَمَا يَأْتِيهِم مِّن نَّبِيٍّ إِلَّا كَانُوا بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ

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    فَأَهْلَكْنَا أَشَدَّ مِنْهُم بَطْشًا وَمَضَىٰ مَثَلُ الْأَوَّلِينَ

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    وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُم مَّنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ خَلَقَهُنَّ الْعَزِيزُ الْعَلِيمُ

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