Period of Revelation:
Traditions and the subject matter indicate that this Surah is a combination of the commandments and instructions revealed on different occasions. According to some traditions most of these commandments were revealed during the final stage of the Prophet's life at Madinah.
Major Issues, Divine Laws and Guidance:
• Allah's command to lower ones voice in the presence of the Prophet.
• If the believers fight among themselves make peace between them.
• Islamic etiquettes of moral behavior:
- Do not laugh at someone to degrade him.
- Do not defame someone through sarcastic remarks.
- Do not call someone by offensive nicknames.
- Avoid immoderate suspicions, for in some cases it is a sin.
- Do not spy on one another.
- Do not backbite one another.
- All mankind is created from one man and one woman, therefore, no one has superiority over another, and noblest is he who is the most pious.
- True believer is he who believes in Allah, His Rasool and makes Jihad with his wealth and person in the Way of Allah.
The subject matter of this Surah is to teach Muslims manners worthy of true believers. In the first five verses they are taught the manners that they should observe with regard to Allah and His Rasool. They are given the instruction, not to believe information without basis and not to act without careful thought. If information is received about a person, a group or a community, it should be evaluated carefully to see whether the source of information is reliable or not. If the source is not reliable, it should be tested and examined to see whether the news is authentic or not, before taking any action. Guidance is provided towards attitudes that Muslims should adopt in cases where groups of Muslims have conflict with each other.
Muslims are exhorted to safeguard against the evils, that corrupt collective life and spoil mutual relationships such as mocking and taunting each other, calling by offensive nicknames, creating suspicions, spying on each other and backbiting. All of these evils are declared as forbidden and unlawful. In addition, national and racial distinctions that cause universal corruption in the world are condemned. Nations, tribes and families with pride of ancestry tend to look down upon others as inferior to themselves. Nationalism historically promotes superior ity complexes that have been the main cause of injustices, wars and tyranny in the world. In this Surah Allah has cut the root of this evil by stating that all men are descendants of the same pair of humans (Adam and Eve). Their division into tribes and communities is only for the sake of recognition, not for boasting and pride. There is no lawful basis of one man's superiority over the other except on the basis of moral excellence.
In conclusion, people are told that true Faith is not the verbal statement of believing in Allah and His Rasool, but to obey them in practical life and to exert sincere efforts with one's self and wealth in the cause of Allah. As for those who profess Islam orally without testifying by their hearts and actions, thinking that they had done someone a favor by accepting Islam, they may be counted among the Muslims in this world and may even be treated as Muslims in the society, but they are not believers in the sight of Allah.
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَىٰ وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا ۚ إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ